Best in Class Finance Functions For Police Forces

Background

Police funding has risen by £4.8 billion and 77 per cent (39 per cent in real terms) since 1997. However the days where forces have enjoyed such levels of funding are over.

Chief Constables and senior management recognize that the annual cycle of looking for efficiencies year-on-year is not sustainable, and will not address the cash shortfall in years to come.
Facing slower funding growth and real cash deficits in their budgets, the Police Service must adopt innovative strategies which generate the productivity and efficiency gains needed to deliver high quality policing to the public.

The step-change in performance required to meet this challenge will only be achieved if the police service fully embraces effective resource management and makes efficient and productive use of its technology, partnerships and people.

The finance function has an essential role to play in addressing these challenges and supporting Forces’ objectives economically and efficiently.

Challenge

Police Forces tend to nurture a divisional and departmental culture rather than a corporate one, with individual procurement activities that do not exploit economies of scale. This is in part the result of over a decade of devolving functions from the center to the.divisions.

In order to reduce costs, improve efficiency and mitigate against the threat of “top down” mandatory, centrally-driven initiatives, Police Forces need to set up a corporate back office and induce behavioral change. This change must involve compliance with a corporate culture rather than a series of silos running through the organization.

Developing a Best in Class Finance Function

Traditionally finance functions within Police Forces have focused on transactional processing with only limited support for management information and business decision support. With a renewed focus on efficiencies, there is now a pressing need for finance departments to transform in order to add greater value to the force but with minimal costs.

1) Aligning to Force Strategy

As Police Forces need finance to function, it is imperative that finance and operations are closely aligned. This collaboration can be very powerful and help deliver significant improvements to a Force, but in order to achieve this model, there are many barriers to overcome. Finance Directors must look at whether their Force is ready for this collaboration, but more importantly, they must consider whether the Force itself can survive without it.

Finance requires a clear vision that centers around its role as a balanced business partner. However to achieve this vision a huge effort is required from the bottom up to understand the significant complexity in underlying systems and processes and to devise a way forward that can work for that particular organization.

The success of any change management program is dependent on its execution. Change is difficult and costly to execute correctly, and often, Police Forces lack the relevant experience to achieve such change. Although finance directors are required to hold appropriate professional qualifications (as opposed to being former police officers as was the case a few years ago) many have progressed within the Public Sector with limited opportunities for learning from and interaction with best in class methodologies. In addition cultural issues around self-preservation can present barriers to change.

Whilst it is relatively easy to get the message of finance transformation across, securing commitment to embark on bold change can be tough. Business cases often lack the quality required to drive through change and even where they are of exceptional quality senior police officers often lack the commercial awareness to trust them.

2) Supporting Force Decisions

Many Finance Directors are keen to develop their finance functions. The challenge they face is convincing the rest of the Force that the finance function can add value – by devoting more time and effort to financial analysis and providing senior management with the tools to understand the financial implications of major strategic decisions.

Maintaining Financial Controls and Managing Risk

Sarbanes Oxley, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), Basel II and Individual Capital Assessments (ICA) have all put financial controls and reporting under the spotlight in the private sector. This in turn is increasing the spotlight on financial controls in the public sector.

A ‘Best in Class’ Police Force finance function will not just have the minimum controls to meet the regulatory requirements but will evaluate how the legislation and regulations that the finance function are required to comply with, can be leveraged to provide value to the organization. Providing strategic information that will enable the force to meet its objectives is a key task for a leading finance function.

3) Value to the Force

The drive for development over the last decade or so, has moved decision making to the Divisions and has led to an increase in costs in the finance function. Through utilizing a number of initiatives in a program of transformation, a Force can leverage up to 40% of savings on the cost of finance together with improving the responsiveness of finance teams and the quality of financial information. These initiatives include:

Centralization

By centralizing the finance function, a Police Force can create centers of excellence where industry best practice can be developed and shared. This will not only re-empower the department, creating greater independence and objectivity in assessing projects and performance, but also lead to more consistent management information and a higher degree of control. A Police Force can also develop a business partner group to act as strategic liaisons to departments and divisions. The business partners would, for example, advise on how the departmental and divisional commanders can meet the budget in future months instead of merely advising that the budget has been missed for the previous month.

With the mundane number crunching being performed in a shared service center, finance professionals will find they now have time to act as business partners to divisions and departments and focus on the strategic issues.

The cultural impact on the departments and divisional commanders should not be underestimated. Commanders will be concerned that:

o Their budgets will be centralized
o Workloads would increase
o There will be limited access to finance individuals
o There will not be on site support

However, if the centralized shared service center is designed appropriately none of the above should apply. In fact from centralization under a best practice model, leaders should accrue the following benefits:

o Strategic advice provided by business partners
o Increased flexibility
o Improved management information
o Faster transactions
o Reduced number of unresolved queries
o Greater clarity on service and cost of provision
o Forum for finance to be strategically aligned to the needs of the Force

A Force that moves from a de-centralized to a centralized system should try and ensure that the finance function does not lose touch with the Chief Constable and Divisional Commanders. Forces need to have a robust business case for finance transformation combined with a governance structure that spans operational, tactical and strategic requirements. There is a risk that potential benefits of implementing such a change may not be realized if the program is not carefully managed. Investment is needed to create a successful centralized finance function. Typically the future potential benefits of greater visibility and control, consistent processes, standardized management information, economies of scale, long-term cost savings and an empowered group of proud finance professionals, should outweigh those initial costs.

To reduce the commercial, operational and capability risks, the finance functions can be completely outsourced or partially outsourced to third parties. This will provide guaranteed cost benefits and may provide the opportunity to leverage relationships with vendors that provide best practice processes.

Process Efficiencies

Typically for Police Forces the focus on development has developed a silo based culture with disparate processes. As a result significant opportunities exist for standardization and simplification of processes which provide scalability, reduce manual effort and deliver business benefit. From simply rationalizing processes, a force can typically accrue a 40% reduction in the number of processes. An example of this is the use of electronic bank statements instead of using the manual bank statement for bank reconciliation and accounts receivable processes. This would save considerable effort that is involved in analyzing the data, moving the data onto different spreadsheet and inputting the data into the financial systems.

Organizations that possess a silo operating model tend to have significant inefficiencies and duplication in their processes, for example in HR and Payroll. This is largely due to the teams involved meeting their own goals but not aligning to the corporate objectives of an organization. Police Forces have a number of independent teams that are reliant on one another for data with finance in departments, divisions and headquarters sending and receiving information from each other as well as from the rest of the Force. The silo model leads to ineffective data being received by the teams that then have to carry out additional work to obtain the information required.

Whilst the argument for development has been well made in the context of moving decision making closer to operational service delivery, the added cost in terms of resources, duplication and misaligned processes has rarely featured in the debate. In the current financial climate these costs need to be recognized.

Culture

Within transactional processes, a leading finance function will set up targets for staff members on a daily basis. This target setting is an element of the metric based culture that leading finance functions develop. If the appropriate metrics of productivity and quality are applied and when these targets are challenging but not impossible, this is proven to result in improvements to productivity and quality.

A ‘Best in Class’ finance function in Police Forces will have a service focused culture, with the primary objectives of providing a high level of satisfaction for its customers (departments, divisions, employees & suppliers). A ‘Best in Class’ finance function will measure customer satisfaction on a timely basis through a metric based approach. This will be combined with a team wide focus on process improvement, with process owners, that will not necessarily be the team leads, owning force-wide improvement to each of the finance processes.

Organizational Improvements

Organizational structures within Police Forces are typically made up of supervisors leading teams of one to four team members. Through centralizing and consolidating the finance function, an opportunity exists to increase the span of control to best practice levels of 6 to 8 team members to one team lead / supervisor. By adjusting the organizational structure and increasing the span of control, Police Forces can accrue significant cashable benefit from a reduction in the number of team leads and team leads can accrue better management experience from managing larger teams.

Technology Enabled Improvements

There are a significant number of technology improvements that a Police Force could implement to help develop a ‘Best in Class’ finance function.

These include:

A) Scanning and workflow

Through adopting a scanning and workflow solution to replace manual processes, improved visibility, transparency and efficiencies can be reaped.

B) Call logging, tracking and workflow tool

Police Forces generally have a number of individuals responding to internal and supplier queries. These queries are neither logged nor tracked. The consequence of this is dual:

o Queries consume considerable effort within a particular finance team. There is a high risk of duplicated effort from the lack of logging of queries. For example, a query could be responded to for 30 minutes by person A in the finance team. Due to this query not being logged, if the individual that raised the query called up again and spoke to a different person then just for one additional question, this could take up to 20 minutes to ensure that the background was appropriately explained.

o Queries can have numerous interfaces with the business. An unresolved query can be responded against by up to four separate teams with considerable delay in providing a clear answer for the supplier.

The implementation of a call logging, tracking and workflow tool to document, measure and close internal and supplier queries combined with the set up of a central queries team, would significantly reduce the effort involved in responding to queries within the finance departments and divisions, as well as within the actual divisions and departments, and procurement.

C) Database solution

Throughout finance departments there are a significant number of spreadsheets utilized prior to input into the financial system. There is a tendency to transfer information manually from one spreadsheet to another to meet the needs of different teams.

Replacing the spreadsheets with a database solution would rationalize the number of inputs and lead to effort savings for the front line Police Officers as well as Police Staff.

D) Customize reports

In obtaining management information from the financial systems, police staff run a series of reports, import these into excel, use lookups to match the data and implement pivots to illustrate the data as required. There is significant manual effort that is involved in carrying out this work. Through customizing reports the outputs from the financial system can be set up to provide the data in the formats required through the click of a button. This would have the benefit of reduced effort and improved motivation for team members that previously carried out these mundane tasks.

In designing, procuring and implementing new technology enabling tools, a Police Force will face a number of challenges including investment approval; IT capacity; capability; and procurement.

These challenges can be mitigated through partnering with a third party service company with whom the investment can be shared, the skills can be provided and the procurement cycle can be minimized.

Conclusion

It is clear that cultural, process and technology change is required if police forces are to deliver both sustainable efficiencies and high quality services. In an environment where for the first time forces face real cash deficits and face having to reduce police officer and support staff numbers whilst maintaining current performance levels the current finance delivery models requires new thinking.

While there a number of barriers to be overcome in achieving a best in class finance function, it won’t be long before such a decision becomes mandatory. Those who are ahead of the curve will inevitably find themselves in a stronger position.

Success Factors in a Global Network Marketing Business

Success FactorsHow to Discover the Love, Innovation and the Entrepreneurial Fitness Required in a Global Network Marketing BusinessForwardTo everyone that is doubtful of hope – this is for you!Let’s begin. A few short weeks ago, unbeknownst to me, I had the privilege of meeting someone on an airplane bound for Adelaide, Australia; who would lead me onto an exciting path of discovery. We momentarily chatted at the back of the aeroplane on my way back from Nadi, Fiji; in a chance meeting in which I would say ‘yes’, I would like to hear more about the business model that had established her recent financial freedom and success (more to come on this encounter with an interview in the later chapters).Eager to progress my knowledge, I spent the next 4 weeks researching the industry, the organisation, the people behind it and the sequences and processes to their wealth. The learning curve was exponential – and this is my reflection. At this point in time, I was coincidentally completing my final MBA capstone research project in Adelaide, so I took the opportunity to research her discussion with me in depth and convey the message across to my followers from an Australian scholarly point of view. I had no idea about the industry, albeit little rumours here and there to complement my somewhat biased and disappointing initial online research. I found nothing positive but like an underworld that nobody truly knew about – it intrigued me because I felt that something was right.The bastion for wealth had its scent in the air. This could be its last refuge – I thought. I had to form an immediate action drill to advance a pincer movement onto this burgeoning interest. It was now or never. I wasn’t sure if it was the timing or the opportunity – the right thing to do though was to jump first and ask questions later. This is the later part of that quick equation that transpired in my entrepreneurial mind. This educative curiosity from an Australian scholarly perspective is now alive in the words that you will feel and as we go through the journey together; towards health, wealth, a great life with grand relationships and most importantly learning about the chances to glow youthfully throughout the adventure. This enlightenment was my beginning into a new and evolving industry. A new road was carved and you may feel the moments morph around your own personal experiences or fantasies. I dived immediately into the books and into the school library; the search for the golden nugget had begun. Line by line, word for word, dissecting the information and honouring the objections with gratitude. My hope is that this communicated knowledge helps novice beginners similar to myself, take that intriguing next step towards calculated risk taking, growth and most importantly, self-discovery through the facts.I hope that you gain some business value in my research and that this value inspires you to create your own decisions when the time comes for you to approach your own destiny!In Gratitude and Thanks.David.Chapter 1Introduction to Network MarketingNetwork marketing, multi-level marketing, direct sales, referral marketing, pyramid selling etc, the names are endless. For the purpose of simplification we will adhere to this business model simply as network marketing for ease of navigation, and understanding throughout the book. All of these names; simply exemplifies a unique marketing strategy for the sale of products or services where the revenue of the network company is derived from a non-salaried workforce selling the company’s products or services. Pretty simple system – just made complicated to confuse the novice beginner like myself.1.1 History – How Did It Start?By accident to be honest. This is how the story goes and it all starts with an ingenuous idea conceptualised in 1930 by a man called Carl Rehnborg. Carl was an American businessman who lived in China between 1917 to 1927. Carl observed the benefits of using supplements in a diet that could be beneficial to a human beings health. According to Amway publications, Carl’s study became the ‘ample opportunity to observe at close range the effects of an inadequate diet’. With the knowledge he attained in the nutritional literature, he then started to envision a dietary supplement that would assist proper body functioning in any sort of diet. Carl then decided to go back to America to start his own company out of his learnings in China. He founded his company called The California Vitamin Company. In 1939, he renamed the company to Nutrilite. Carl utilised his friends to sell the vitamins but things initially looked disappointing. The vitamins were piling up on the shelves, unused and forgotten. It was heartbreaking for Carl. Until an idea lit up in his mind, to develop a kind of selling by informing people about the product. He shared the vitamins to more of his friends, to the friends of his friends and so on. You can see where this is going right? Alas – network marketing was born!The business model grew further when Jay Van Andel and Rich DeVos became the distributors of Carl’s products. The three noticed a phenomenal increase in sales. KABOOM… !! Network marketing was unleashed into the world. They later set up a competing company (because competition is good in a capitalistic economy) called Amway and they also bought a controlling interest in Nutrilite in 1972. In 1994, Amway took over full ownership and is one of the largest network marketing companies in the world today.1.2 How Do They Get Paid?As the business world innovates and disrupts, network marketing compensation plans evolve to attract new recruits and customers. It is a very simple strategy for expansion to capitalise on the available market share. It is different for every network marketing company just as there are different salaries for different corporations. However the most common is the commission based on the two revenue streams. The first stream of compensation can be paid out from commissions of product sales. The second stream of compensation can be paid out from commissions based on recruiting similar minded distributors. The amount of compensation varies between network marketing companies. I would have to study every single company in the world to understand this – alternatively I can study the success stories because success always leaves hints – in the results.Chapter 2Demographic ExamplesLet’s look at some quick examples of the people who have seen the opportunity and taken the leap. Here we witness the amazing stories of different individuals who have tasted the recent fruit of success in network marketing – becoming phenomenally wealthy.2.1 TeacherSarah Robbins always dreamed to become a teacher. So she became one. She thought she could now have all that she wanted with a limitless appetite for continuous personal growth and development. However, the economy stumped in the US of A, challenging her thoughts on the economy.She had heard of the Rodan & Fields products. She then decided to join so she could earn an extra income and expand her personal development at the same time. Unexpectedly, with her initial goal to earn just a bit of extra income, she earned more than she thought, even more as a teacher. Her career in network marketing grew and she decided to focus on it rather than her teaching career. She was earning six figures at a very young age. She joined the millionaires club and becoming the first distributor to be inducted into the Rodan & Fields Hall of Fame. Sarah continues to educate people on the benefits of network marketing and benefits of its wealth through her unique educational style.2.2 WriterEric Worre, an ordinary writer spent 30 years working in network marketing once he saw the light. He spent most of his 30 years as a distributor and eventually became the president of his own networking company – The People’s Network. He then decided to retire as a distributor and continued his journey in network marketing as a coach and helped network marketing novices, organizing sales presentations. He then wrote ‘Go Pro – 7 Steps to Becoming a Network Marketing Professional’ in 2013, to reach and educate more network marketing aspirants. It has sold more than 1.5 million copies and has been on six best-sellers lists on Amazon.2.3 Single MotherDonna Johnson is an example of a network marketing miracle. A single mum who did not have anything before she started in network marketing. No college degree – just an ordinary swimming coach in a little American town. With her determination to succeed, she now earns more than $1 million per year and is the leader in one of the top network marketing companies, Arbonne. She is now one of the biggest earners in network marketing and has a bed and breakfast business in Jamaica amongst other entrepreneurial ventures.2.4 Government WorkerRebecca Simon is a modest mother who was brought up in one of Adelaide’s toughest suburbs. She recollects how she would travel to work every day and sit at an uninspiring desk job, knowing deep down inside that she was capable of more. Today she is building her own resort on an exotic south pacific Island – just three years after she started in network marketing. More on Rebecca’s inspirational story later on in the book.Chapter 3The Feminine Revolution40 years ago, when the empowerment of women took off, many loved their new found independence and the opportunity to dress in a suit and drive off to a esteemed corner office. Things have changed a lot since the 70s and 80s, today she is just as happy to pull on comfortable yoga pants and skip the travel to the office altogether. Instead of tolerating negative office stigma and glass ceilings, modern women are heading towards the unique opportunity to be their own CEO, have control with no limits on their annual income. Some other reasons why network marketing industry is proving to be amazing for the ladies are:Drum roll…
3.1 Work – Life BalanceBeing burnt out today is no longer the exception, it is the norm. People have to put up with inflation, rising food prices, cost of living, raise families and commute sometimes for hours to get to, and back from work. The amount of work to be taken home is also increasing, teachers working to plan their workloads weeks in advance and project managers working extended hours to launch projects on time. You have heard it before and again, the balance has gone out of whack but some refuse to accept the truth.3.2 EnvironmentMost career women have worked in team environments and enjoy the collaborative and interpersonal communication that goes with it. It is no surprise that the network marketing industry has exactly that and for most women joining the industry, it is this support and collaboration that they miss the most from a usual 9am to 5pm, sit in the corner and do your work routine.3.3 Choice to ChooseNetwork marketing gives women the freedom to choose who they would like to work with as business partners. They choose who they recruit, who they work with and who they would rather not. This choice to choose is empowering and exciting at the same time for women in the industry.3.4 Global Empire at Your FingertipsYou drive around cities and towns nowadays and still see the for lease sign up again at the shop that closed around the corner. You wonder why some businesses prefer the old way of doing businesses in a time where digital disruption is taking stores online. The brilliance of network marketing is that apart from an initial modest start-up fee, there are no overheads, no garages for stock keeping, accountants, legal advisers, etc, you get the idea. The brilliance with network marketing is that most if not all the work can be done from your mobile phone or laptop computer. Your store is online!3.5 Cool Rewards and IncentivesThere are hardly any places left in the world where a large corporation hosts large global events that also reward women for trips, cars, gifts, holidays etc, all whilst developing women business capabilities and personal development. Name a lady who doesn’t like to be pampered from time to time with absolute luxury?3.6 Glass CeilingWith 82 percent of the network marketing industry made up of women, more and more are rising to the top, claiming multi-six- and seven-figure annual incomes. The world is your oyster in this industry for women and those that grasp the opportunity are confirmed with a gift, and if utilised, become extremely wealthy. No glass ceiling in the industry. Effort equals reward!3.7 Freedom of TimeLet’s face it, we all need more freedom, money and time. Where else can you get that? In the industry business partners are told to work at least 2 hours per day to grow their businesses. That’s an average of 8 hours from Monday to Friday. If done correctly this is all one needs to sustain a healthy and wealthy lifestyle from passive income brought in by the industry. Freedom has the allure to pull and no one will ever say no to an opportunity to get more!And, finally, perhaps the most important reason of all…
3.8 AuthenticityThe network marketing business model thrives on the values of femininity such as nurturing support, collaboration, and authenticity – all of which are inherently feminine traits that are easily transferrable into the business model. The more women show up as their natural caring selves, the more successful they become in developing long term substantial relationships in growing their teams and customer base.Chapter 4The Meek Shall Inherit the EarthThe worlds middle class is becoming much larger, the worlds education system is being made more accessible and demographics from the poorest suburbs on the planet have made that extraordinary leap from third world country struggle – to developed world multi-millionaire. Let’s have a look at some examples.4.1 The Gift of AdversityStudies and research have proven time and time again that those from minority, ethnic or migrant backgrounds go that extra mile to achieve their goals in life; if given a small and fair chance to give an opportunity a ago. With that attitude and hunger in network marketing, most if not all, go on to become extraordinary wealthy, becoming multi-millionaires and leaders. There is just something magical, mystical, unknown and empowering about enduring as an underdog from one of those aforementioned backgrounds. Turning adversity and challenges on its head can be the source of generational wealth for years and years to come. Let’s research an example of a network marketing company that is capturing this driven demographic.4.2 KyaniKyani is a global network marketing giant who has successfully positioned itself for global dominance in developing countries to assist the worlds growing middle class. A new starter but safely past the initial 10 year start up survival phase, and rapidly expanding into some 60 plus different countries over the short space of time, Kyani doesn’t limit its sales in developed economies but has strategically given interest to the worlds developing nations such as Honduras, Guatemala, Kazakhstan and Slovakia to name a few. You only have to grab a copy of Kyanis annual network marketing magazine to see proof of the overflow of the minority demographics from countries such as Korea, Turkey, Hungary and the Philippines who are being inducted into the 7 figure salary clubs. Most had disadvantaged starts in life and were from the ordinary occupations such as soldiers, hairdressers and tradesman.Let’s look at some life examples.4.3 Les BrownAfrican American global inspirational speaker, Les Brown didn’t have the best start in life. In fact it was horrible. However, he turned that pain around and become an inspirational example of hope for the world. Les Brown often refers to another historic global icon Ralph Waldo Emerson in his speeches who coined today’s existence as the ‘age of self-reliance’. Les Brown champions unorthodox underdog mental motivation and entrepreneurship – qualities that are found in those that are from minority, migrant and ethnic backgrounds.4.4 Robert KiyosakiFrom a military and Japanese Hawaiian background – Robert Kiyosaki, the award winning Rich Dad, Poor Dad writer; has proven that network marketing success and wealth is not reserved for any demographic. Success can be achieved by anyone, and from any background.Chapter 5Global Icons in Network MarketingNow, let’s look at some well-known global figures who have aligned their businesses with the network marketing industry.5.1 Warren BuffettThe man needs no introduction as a philanthropist and investor and usually sits in the top 3 of the richest people on the planet. He is valued at nearly 70 billion USD and owns Berkshire Hathaway. Berkshire Hathaway owns three network marketing companies, Kirby, World Book and the Pampered Chef. To this day Warren Buffett calls purchasing these network marketing companies – the best purchase he has ever made!5.2 Richard BransonA man that also requires no introduction. One small branch of the Virgin Group that often goes unmentioned is Vie at Home, a network marketing company formerly known as Virgin Vie. Vie at Home made over $60 million of profit in its – first year maiden of existence! Ouch!5.3 Donald TrumpYes, no political affiliations here but when asked on the David Letterman show: What would you do if you lost everything and had to start over from scratch? Trump replied – “I would find a good network marketing company and get to work”.5.4 Bill ClintonIn 1997, Bill Clinton endorsed network marketing in his remarks to the Direct Selling Association. President Clinton stated that ‘You strengthen our country and our economy not just by striving for your own success but by offering opportunity to others… Your industry gives people the chance, after all, to make the most of their own lives and to me that’s the heart of the American dream’.5.5 Jim RohnOne of the worlds pioneers in personal development and network marketing. Today remains one of the founding fathers of the personal and professional development movement and mentored motivational leaders like Tony Robbins. Jim Rohn found the light and opportunity within the network marketing industry and within 6 years – turned his fortunes around to become extraordinarily wealthy, by the age of 32.Chapter 6SummaryWith our brief history and introduction lesson complete, we will go from a beginner to more advanced network marketing challengers and the strategies that will equip the beginner early in the journey. We will unearth deep scholarly research to help structure your leadership for both, the local and the rising global markets.This Australian scholarly research will include vital business concepts that have been proven to increase the chances of success by leveraging both digital and offline mediums. As a bonus and later on in the book; the author personally will outline how his global and MBA experience has helped him in the industry.I sincerely hope that this book adds insurmountable value to your life, those around you and most importantly, your bright future.Thank You.AboutDavd was born in Fiji. At 20 years of age he enlisted into the British Army at Stoke on Trent in England. He served all over the world for a decade as an engineer and team leader. Some of his postings included Germany, Bosnia Herzegovina, Cyprus, Australia and Afghanistan. He moved into civilian life in Australia on May 22, 2012 and rose quickly through the civilian and public service leadership ranks. He graduates in November, 2018 with an MBA degree from Torrens University Australia and lives in Adelaide.

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